Multi-Asset Shielded Pools


Various functionalities in Webb’s MASP system require inserting into an on-chain Merkle tree. Due to the amount of hashing required, this is a gas-expensive operation. To save gas, we can instead queue Merkle tree leaves on-chain and then batch insert them via a succinct proof. In this document, we describe queuing and batch inserting into the MASP Record , RewardUnspent, and RewardSpent trees.

Technical Details

It is easiest to describe the rollup functionality via a step-by-step user flow. Let’s call this user Alice. We describe how the rollup functionality works, by explaining what happens as Alice interacts with the MASP by depositing funds and then transacting via ZKPs.

The main smart contract which contains the queueing and batch inserting functionality is called the MASPProxy. A MASPProxy can proxy for multiple MASPs.

  • Alice sends the following QueueDepositInfo struct information:
struct QueueDepositInfo {
	address unwrappedToken;
	address wrappedToken;
	uint256 amount;
	uint256 assetID;
	uint256 tokenID;
	bytes32 depositPartialCommitment;
	address proxiedMASP;

to the queueDeposit function along with the associated deposit tokens.

  • queueDeposit function checks that the deposited tokens match the information in the QueueDepositInfo struct. If so, inserts QueueDepositInfo into QueueDepositMap which is a double mapping from masp addressuint256QueueDepositInfo.
  • A relayer or any other outside entity can call the batchDeposit function which does the following for each queued deposit being inserted:
    • The associated funds have to be transferred to MASP and potentially wrapped.
    • Associated RewardUnspentTree commitment has to be computed and queued for insertion.
    • The relayer has to submit a batch update zero-knowledge proof (the details of which are described in the Batch Update Circuit section below) to update the Merkle root of the MASPs Merkle tree. This proof is then verified by the MASP.
  • When Alice transacts on the MASP, for instance, by doing an internal shielded transfer, inputRecords are spent and outputRecords are created. The reward commitments associated with the nullified inputRecords are queued for insertion on the RewardSpentTree and the reward commitments associated with the outputRecords are queued for insertion on the RewardUnspentTree.
  • A relayer can submit a batch update zero-knowledge proof to update the RewardUnspentTree and RewardSpentTree. The roots of these trees are then relayed to the Tangle blockchain, where rewards can be claimed in Tangle tokens.

Batch Update Circuit

batchMerkleTreeUpdate.circom (opens in a new tab)

The purpose of a Merkle tree batch update circuit is simple. It takes in as inputs:

signal input argsHash; // Public Input
signal input oldRoot; // Private Input
signal input newRoot; // Private Input
signal input pathIndices; // Private Input
signal input pathElements[height]; // Private Input
signal input leaves[nLeaves]; // Private Input

The argsHash is simply the hash of all the private inputs. This allows for gas-efficiency. Since more public inputs means more gas spent on proof verification. The oldRoot is the current root of the on-chain Merkle tree. The newRoot is the root after the leaves[nLeaves] are inserted into the Merkle tree. The circuit checks that newRoot really is the new root after the leaves[nLeaves] are inserted. It does this via the following algorithm (note nLeaves must be a power of 2):

  • Say the entire Merkle tree has height levels.
  • We think of the Merkle tree as a Merkle treee of height level - batchLevels, where each leaf is actually the root of a Merkle tree of height batchLevels, where 2 ** batchLevels = nLeaves.
  • Inside the circuit, we first Merkleize the nLeaves. This gives us the root of the Merkle tree of height batchLevels, which is in turn a leaf of the Merkle tree of height levels - batchLevels.
  • It is then checked that inserting this Merkleized value into the Merkle tree of height levels - batchLevels results in the Merkle root being newRoot. This is done via the MerkleTreeUpdater circuit: merkleTreeUpdater.circom (opens in a new tab).